As consumers we would have bought the best of the Vitrified Tiles available in the market. However it is finally the workmanship of laying the Tiles that gives us the feel and its aesthetics. we often here of displacements, non alignment and other issues. The workman can make or break the show !!
Thankfully there are guidelines to Lay tiles and well defined by ISO
Source: ISO 13006
Vitrified are very popuar substitutes for Marbles, Granites and other materials. They are popular due to their strenght, low water porosity and a cost effectiveness.
So what constitutes the specifications for calling a Tile a Vitrified Tile.. ISO (under ISO 13006) provides guidelines that define the characterestic of Vitrified Tiles
1. For Polished Vitrified Tiles.
2. For Unpolished Vitrified Tiles.
Heavy duty vitrified tiles shall be acid and alkali resistant, weather proof, anti skid and abrasion resistant as per International
Source: ISO Specification 13006
Many consumers purchase plywood based on the recommendations of carpenters, workers, contractors or suppliers. They rarely get to understand and analyze the quality aspect of the plywood. Often they compromise on quality for cheap products without realising the long term impact of purchasing sub standard materials.
Is it not surprising that consumers complain of deterioration of the plywood bought after just a few years. The common complaints heard are:
So how did the above happen?
Plywood industry is very prone to
Be aware that many items that are sold under popular brands are duplicates. Fake Stickers or Stamps are put on the material to make it look genuine
Sub standard raw material used to manufacture plywood:
It is important to understand that the quality, strength and durability of Plywood is linked to:
To short cut cost, quality is often compromised by some manufacturers. Plain jungle wood is used that do not withstand termites or fungus or water moisture.
Bad glue materials are used for binding layers in a sheet, thus resulting in cracks, bend, etc.
How to avoid duplicates or Sub standard materials ?
It is important to understand what grade of material is being purchased. Generally plywoods fall under Commercial (Moisture Resistant), BWR (Boiling water Resistant) and BWP (Boiling water proof) also known as Marine grades.
Indian Standard Specifications CODE for
1) Moisture Resistant(MR) Grade Plywood is IS:303 of 1989
2) Boiling Water Resistant(BWR) Grade Plywood is IS:303 of 1989
3) Boiling Water Proof(BWP) Grade Plywood is IS:710 of 2010
Look out for the ISI Mark on the material (plywood Sheet).
BIS Mark or CM/L Number:
Materials should have CM/L number which indicates the authenticity of the material using the ISI mark.
Consumers can download the BIS Care app from Google Playstore. They can track the history, manunfacturing unit of the material using the app and by providing the CM/L number mentioned on each sheet of plywood.
THe app can be downloaded from:
The grade is the index of strength measured as the compressive strength measured in laboratory
33 Grade cement will have compressive strength = 33 MPa (Mega Pascals) after 28 days
43 grade = 43 MPa (Mega Pascals) after 28 days
53 grade = 53 MPa (Mega Pascals) after 28 days
Bureau of Indian Standards ( BIS ) Guidelines IS: 383-1970 for selection and testing of Coarse and Fine aggregates available.
Generally, Sand is classified as Zone I, Zone II, Zone III and Zone IV (i.e. Coarser to Finer). There is
sieve designation for each zone. Gradation is made in accord with the usage of the sand. There are
testing sieves, consists of 4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.183mm, 600microns, 300 microns, 150 microns and a
|Typical Sieve analysis: Comparison of River & Manufactured Sand|
|IS Sieve||% of passing(River
|% of passing (Manufactured
|Zone II (As per
|75 micron||Max 3||Max 15||Max 15|
|Zone II||Zone II|
Zone IIZone IINote: The gradation of manufactured sand can be controlled at crushing
Natural or River sand are weathered and worn out particles of rocks and are of various grades or sizes
depending upon the amount of wearing. Now-a-days good sand is not readily available, it is
transported from a long distance. Those resources are also exhausting very rapidly. So it is a need of
the time to find some substitute to natural river sand.
The artificial sand produced by proper machines can be a better substitute to river sand. The sand
must be of proper gradation (it should have particles from 150 microns to 4.75 mm in proper
When fine particles are in proper proportion, the sand will have fewer voids. The cement quantity
required will be less. Such sand will be more economical. Demand for manufactured fine aggregates
for making concrete is increasing day by day as river sand cannot meet the rising demand of
construction sector. Natural river sand takes millions of years to form and is not repleneshible.
Because of its limited supply, the cost of Natural River sand has sky rocketed and its consistent supply
cannot be guaranteed. Under this circumstances use of manufactured sand becomes inevitable.
River sand in many parts of the country is not graded properly and has excessive silt and organic
impurities and these can be detrimental to durability of steel in concrete whereas manufactured sand
has no silt or organic impurities
Issues with River Sand
1. The Civil engineers, Architects, Builders, and Contractors agree that the river sand, which is
available today, is deficient in many respect. It does content very high silt fine particles (as in
case of Filter sand).
2. Presence of other impurities such as coal, bones, shells, mica and silt etc makes it inferior for
the use in cement concrete. The decay of these materials, due to weathering effect, shortens
the life of the concrete.
3. Now-a-days, the Government have put ban on lifting sand from River bed.
4. Transportation of sand damages the roads.
5. Removing sand from river bed impact the environment, as water table goes deeper &
General Requirements of Manufactured Sand (M Sand)
1. All the sand particles should have higher crushing strength.
2. The surface texture of the particles should be smooth.
3. The edges of the particles should be grounded.
4. The ratio of fines below 600 microns in sand should not be less than 30%.
5. There should not be any organic impurities
6. Silt in sand should not be more than 2%, for crushed sand.
7. In manufactured sand the permissible limit of fines below 75 microns shall not exceed 15%.
To check M sand price in Bangalore. visit https://www.parts2build.com/m-sand-bangalore-online